By Jessica Ravitz
Leading up to Saturday's ceremony, Roy Costner IV prayed on what he was going to do. Liberty High School's 2013 valedictorian would soon find himself in front of a microphone. He'd have a pulpit from which he could address his small community tucked away in South Carolina's mountainous corner.
Only his father and pastor knew what was weighing on his heart and mind. Could he, should he, insert a prayer in his pre-approved graduation speech? He'd been told by the school principal that talk of religion wasn't allowed, and so far he'd followed the rules.
But as the day approached, the 18-year-old couldn't deny what he felt he needed to do.
"I wanted to stand up for God," he explained Wednesday. "This is what God wanted me to do."
So Costner, in cap and gown, stood behind the podium and ripped up his original speech. Before he gave shout-outs to coaches, cheerleaders and friends, there was something else he wanted to say.
"One thing I am certain of is we're all a sum of our experiences, both good and bad," he told his fellow graduates, a class of about 150. "All in all, those experiences, the people who mentored us, that we look up to, they have helped carve and mold us into the young adults that we are today. I'm so thankful that both of my parents led me to the Lord at a young age. And I think most of you will understand when I say, 'Our father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name ..."
The crowd before him began to cheer as he recited The Lord's Prayer, drowning out a few verses. The school principal, sitting behind him, appeared uncomfortable and peered down at papers on her lap. The school district's superintendent, a few seats over, couldn't help but smile.
"I was tearing up," Costner said, remembering the moment. "I was overwhelmed by the response. ... The clapping was so loud I couldn't hear myself talking into the microphone."
His father told CNN's Piers Morgan on Thursday he was overwhelmed with pride for his son. The younger Costner approached his dad a few days before the speech and showed him what he wanted to do.
"I said, 'Look, if you're doing this for political reasons, don't. But if you're doing it because you feel led to do it and you feel this is a part of your speech, then I want you to do it and I'll stand by you,' " Roy Costner III said.
Some of the people who were there for the speech heaped on praise when talking to CNN affiliate WYFF. One called it "pretty impressive." Another student said it "took a lot of courage." and that "people were proud that he stood up for what he believed in."
What he believes is that Liberty, a town with three stoplights and a population of 3,000, "fully supports prayer."
He also believes that organizations such as the Freedom From Religion Foundation, a Madison, Wisconsin, group dedicated to maintaining separation of church and state, should stop meddling in the affairs of the Pickens County School District. The foundation, over this past school year, has leaned on the district to keep Jesus and student-led prayers out of school board meetings.
Other concerns went beyond board meetings. This spring, the foundation's staff attorney sent a lawyer representing the district a letter about complaints of alleged discriminatory hiring and religious promotion in another county high school and praise music being played in an elementary school classroom. The foundation said it learned of such practices by way of community members who are, in fact, not fully supporting prayer.
Costner said he set out to make a statement, one he hopes will inspire others to stand up, too, for what he sees as the good of this country.
"Taking prayer out of schools is the worst thing we could do," he said.
If Costner went to a Christian school, there would be no discussion, said Annie Laurie Gaylor, co-president of the Freedom From Religion Foundation. But in public schools, even in a place where there may be a religious majority, prayers such as his are clearly unconstitutional, she said. What's more, she added, what he did shows contempt for school district policy and a lack of sensitivity for his audience.
"It's aggressive. It's supremely rude," she said. "This student is old enough to know that not everyone in the audience is Christian."
But Costner, who was bouncing between interviews and heading to New York for TV appearances, said he counts atheists among his friends. He said that even though he doesn't agree with their beliefs, he respects them -- and that they do the same for him.
The elder Costner said his son had been inundated with messages of support, even from atheists.
He said he thinks the video of the speech resonated with people across the country because many people "really want something to hold onto for hope."
The son said he's experienced no blowback from the district for what he did. And a district spokesman suggested Costner won't.
"He's a graduate now, so there's nothing we can do about it even if we wanted to," John Eby told WYFF. "But the bottom line is we're not going to punish students for expressing their religious faiths."
The district, Eby explained to CNN Friday morning, is in a "nearly impossible position." He said federal law, under the Establishment Clause, is clear that public schools cannot "approve in advance a student's prayer" or "carve out time specifically for religious expression." But, under the Free Exercise Clause, he added, "we can't punish students who do pray."
Gaylor doesn't expect there to be any punishment. But without issuing some sort of statement expressing disappointment and reiterating school policy, she said, the district is making a mistake.
"It's one thing if a school doesn't have a policy," she said. "But when they do, they really need to enforce their policy because otherwise it's just a wink and a nod."
Eby has an answer to this.
"I do want to reiterate that we don't approve rule breaking," he said. "But we are very serious about protecting our students' rights to express themselves religiously -- or to refuse to."